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Terms of Sociology

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Under population
An insufficient number of residents compared to the number who could live in a given area and maintain a given plane of living.

Universal cultural pattern
A construct composed of the cultural elements; social organizations and types of social conduct which can be found in every human society.

Urban sociology
The study of the implications of urban living for social relations.

Urban managerialism
The approach to the study of urban social and spatial inequalities associated with the work of R E Pahl.The reason for social and spatial inequality is sought in the decisions of those who are associated with management and administration of cities.

Urban renewal
A term applied to an approach to urban development. Three things are stressed in urban renewal.
1. Prevention of the spread of blight into good areas.
2. The rehabilitation and conservation of areas that can be economically restored.
3. Clearance and redevelopment of areas that cannot be saved.

Urban ring
The area surrounding a city including the suburbs and the urban fringe.

Urban society
An abstract or idea type developed by Robert Redfield as part of his folk-urban societal typology. Urban society is characterized by a large, heterogenous population close contact with other societies, a complex division of labour, a prevalence of secular over sacred concerns and the desire to organize behavior rationally toward given goals as opposed to following without question traditional standards and norms. Many social relationships are impersonal and contractual and there is a formal system of social controls. Urban society is contrasted to folk society.

Urbanism
Patterns of culture and social interaction resulting from the concentration of large population into relatively small areas. Urbanism reflects an organization of society in terms of a complex division of labor, high levels of technology, high mobility, interdependence of its members in fulfilling economic functions and impersonality in social relations.

Urbanization Urbanization means formation of cities. It is different from urbanism which according to Louis Wirth is a way of life. Thus urbanization is a process of achieving urbanism. A more complex society with high density of population, large size and heterogeneity.

Usage, social
A uniform or customary way of behaving within a social group.Max Weber used the term social usage as a more general term than custom which he regarded as a subtype.

Utilitarianism
The ethical and social doctrine originated by Jeremy Bantham that the sole aim and criterion for judging all human conduct and all laws is the amount of happiness produced for the greatest number of people.

Utopia
A conception of an ideal or perfectly society which eliminates all of the aspects of prevailing societies that are regarded as undesirable. Highly idealized utopias represent societies in which people live without interpersonal conflict, without rivalry without competition –infact without any of the potentially painful experiences realistically involved in human interaction in every human society of both the past and the present.