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Terms of Sociology

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Valence
As defined by Kurt Lewin, the quality of an object or goal that attracts (positive valence) or repels (negative valence) an individual.

Validity
In statistics correspondence between what a measuring device is supposed to measure and what is really a measure. For example if one were to ask whether a particular survey of voter preference really measures the preferences of voters or whether a particular intelligence test actually measures intelligence ,one would be raising the question of the validity of the survey or the test.

Value judgment
A judgment of what is desirable or worthwhile. Value judgments are essential in all human activities except where they lead to rigidities and dogmatism. Value judgments are undesirable in sociology only if they exclude or obscure available or obtainable facts, knowledge or insights. In science value judgments influence the selection of problems for investigation and the practical application of scientific findings.

Value orientation
A value to which an individual is committed and which influences his behaviour.Value-orientation is distinguished from value by those writers who make this distinction, in that value orientation focuses on an individual whereas value focuses on a group. It may be said that the members of a group share a certain value and yet this value will not be equally important to all group members. When referring to a value to which a particular member is personally committed that is when emphasizing the point of view of a specific individual rather than the group as a whole.

Village
A single definition which would embody the great variety of legal definitions that are to be found in the various state constitutions is impossible. Generally a village is larger than a hamlet but smaller than a town.

Village community
A small number of families engaged in agriculture who live in a compact settlement and who collectively control the use and the ownership of the land they till.

Value
Values are constituent facts of social structure. These are ideas about whether experiences are important or unimportant and they guide a person's judgment and behaviour.An act is considered morally acceptable or legitimate if it confirms to existing values.