Counterculture is a subculture not merely different from but in opposition to the conventional and approved culture of the society.
Culture area is a geographical area in which the societies share common cultural features including language type and social organizational forms;shared cultural features which are usually assumed to be related to fundamental features of the ecology of the area.
Subculture is a cluster of behaviour patterns related to the general culture of a society and yet distinguishable from it; behaviour pattern of a distinct group within the general society.
Social Darwinism is the belief that social arrangements developed gradually on the basis of a competitive struggle in which the best adapted humans and social forms survived.
Belief system is the configuration of beliefs which exist in a particular society or culture. The term may be used to refer to the entirety of the knowledge and beliefs within a society including scientific and technological knowledge. It is used to describe the patterns of religious beliefs and values and the central principles underlying these which give distinctiveness and coherence to the modes of thought within a society or culture. Max Weber used the term weltanshauung for the belief system of a particular social group.