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Points to Remember

  • Talcott Parsons universalistic -achievement pattern variable is central to the industrial society.
  • Touraine described the Post Industrial Society as technocratic society.
  • Maclver emphasized that urban life has fostered the individualization of women.
  • Spengler has described cities as sinks of civilization.
  • E.E Muntz has classified cities on the basis of their principal activities.
  • Ullman has defined the city as a relatively large, dense and permanent settlement of socially heterogeneous individuals.
  • Redfield has remarked that urban groups have a reputation for namelessness.
  • Christaller is associated with the central place theory.
  • Burgess put forward the concentric zone hypothesis on a diagrammatic study of Chicago.
  • The town encourages associative individualism.
  • Commuter's zone is also called bedroom community.
  • Hyat has emphasized the importance of transportation routes in the expansion of a city.
  • The compositional theory is based on rural-urban differences.
  • The culture of poverty refers to slums.
  • Migrants from rural to urban areas adjust more smoothly to city life it they maintain kinship ties.
  • Oscar Lewis has given the concept of culture of poverty.
  • Wirth has remarked that urbanism is a way of life whereas urbanization is a process.
  • Maclver says that cities grow wherever a society or a group within it gains control over resources greater than are necessary for the mere sustenance of life.
  • Robert Redfield has given four characteristics of little community. These are- distinctiveness, smallness, homogeneity and self-sufficiency.
  • Ravenstein has developed the theory of step-migration.
  • Marx perceived the petty bourgeois to be a transitional class.
  • Weber believed greater bureaucratization would lead to greater alienation.
  • Singer and Marriot hold the social structure of civilization to operate at the levels of peasants and industrialists.