Ever since the beginning of sociology, sociologists have shown a great concern in man and in the dynamics of society. It is quite natural that sociologists have developed different approaches from time to time in their attempts to enrich its study.
The main concern of sociology is sociological analysis. It means the sociology seeks to provide an analysis of human society and culture with a sociological perspective. He evinces his interest in the evolution of society and tries to reconstruct the major stages in the evolutionary process. An attempt is also made to analyze the factors and forces underlying historical transformation of society.
Sociology has given sufficient attention to the study of primary units of social life. In this area it is concerned with social acts and social relationships, individual personality, groups of all varieties, communities, associations, organization and population.
Sociology has been concerned with the development, structure and function of a wide variety of basic social institutions such as the family and kinship, religion and property, economic, political, legal, educational and scientific, recreational and welfare, aesthetic and expressive institutions.
Sociologists are concerned with the task of formulating concepts, propositions and theories.
Sociology has placed high premium on the method of research also. Contemporary sociology has tended to become more and more rational and empirical rather than philosophical and idealistic.
The fundamental social processes such as cooperation and competition, accommodation and assimilation, social conflict including war and revolution, communication including opinion, formation, expression and change, social control and deviance including crime, suicide, social integration and social change assume prominence in sociological studies.
Many specialized studies such as sociology of knowledge,sociology of medicine,sociology of law etc have emerged.
Sociology focuses on human interaction on the mutual and reciprocal influencing by two or more people of each other's feelings, attitudes and actions. Sociology does not so much focus on what occurs within people as it does on what transpires between people. Hence the focus of sociological inquiry is on people as social beings- their activities in relation to one another. Sociologists are interested in the way people structure their relationships the manner in which their social ties with others are formed, sustained and changed.