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Political modernization in India

Almost all the political systems have set before themselves the goal of modernization. The political trends in India since independence have largely been a series of reconciliations with demands articulated by regional interest groups: linguistic formation of states in the political realm, emphasis on mixed economy in the sphere of economic policy, secularism and neutrality in international relationship are all reflections of the predominantly reconciliatory pattern of political modernization in India.

The same pattern is true in case of traditional institutions role in politics, caste associations, kin groups and ethnic solidarities have adapted themselves to the need of a modern democratic political culture successfully. Due to the impact of modern forces certain changes have been witnessed in the political sphere of society. Regulation of court laws, establishment of village panchayats and local autonomy has changed the traditional Indian political system. In villages there is decline of caste panchayats and their functions are being transferred to courts.

On the other hand caste is developing on political lines. There is change in the pattern of leadership. This leadership is now available to low income groups as well. The predominance of all India parties indicates the extent to which political unity is firmly established. Regional differences of culture and language have found political expression in debates on the number and delimitation of states It is evident from various sources that intellectuals in a broad sense have dominated political life in India since independence and that active participation in politics by the mass of the population such as occurred in the independence movement has recently begun to revive on a limited scale with the emergence of peasant movements in some states. Students are the principal source of recruitment to the political work and this shows prevalence of factionalism in the major parties. Some studies have found the prevalence of factionalism to be characteristic of the traditional village culture itself. The reservation of seats for scheduled castes and tribes has led to emergence of parties catering exclusively this section of society .In recent years they have made huge gains both in term of vote share and role in the national politics. There are conflicts between traditional social arrangements, caste system and religion and new relationships brought out by economic growth.