It is the transformation of political culture in response to changes in social and physical environment. According to Huntington political modernization is a multifaceted process involving change in all areas of human thought and activity.Benjamin Schwartz views political modernization as the systematic, sustained and powerful application of human energies to control man's social and physical environment. Claude Welch describes political modernization as the process based on the rational utilization of resources and aimed at the establishment of modern society.
The process of modernization of the polity leads to the emergence of some crucial problems and challenges faced by the political system. It is rooted in the changing sources of legitimation of authority.