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Points to Remember

Crude Birth rate: births per 1000 people.

Sex ratio: It is the number of males per 100 females.

Demographic transition: Idea that industrialization brings birthrates and death rates into balance.

Fertility: Actual rate of reproduction.

Life expectancy: Average years of life expected at any given age.

Optimum population: The size of population which will permit the highest standard of living for an area at a given level of technology.

Fecundity: It refers to biological capacity for reproduction as distinct from actual reproduction which is called fertility.Ferility is always less than fecundity in all societies and varies considerably among different societies. The difference between fecundity and fertility is more pronounced among industrial societies as compared to preindustrial societies.