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Social Exclusion

According to Michael Haralambos exclusion refers to a situation in which multiple deprivations prevent individuals from participating in important areas of social activities. Social exclusion according to Ruth Lister in her work Poverty, 2004 refers to the ways in which individuals may be cut off from full involvement in the wider society or prevention of individuals or groups from having the same opportunities that are available to the majority of the population. It means being left out, so it can be voluntary or due to structural reasons which are more prevalent and commonly understood form of social exclusion. According to Mary Daly the concept is wider than poverty as it talks about resource availability and also about participation in the various social processes. Social exclusion is a process by which individuals or households experience multiple deprivations, either of resources or of social links to the wider community or society that prevents them from participating fully in the economic, social and political life of the society in which they are around. Differential treatment, unequal opportunities and marginalization are tools of social exclusion. Social exclusion is not accidental but systematic. It is the result of structural features of the society. It is a broader concept than poverty with multiple dimensions

  •  Social exclusion may lead to exclusion of social rights and erect barriers that prevent access to these rights.
  • It may lead to resource or economic exclusion.
  • It can lead to labor market exclusions and unemployment and underemployment.
  • It can lead to service exclusion like caste system or racial segregation.
  • It may lead to exclusion from social relations like family, community etc.
  • It can lead to exclusion and isolation from larger society itself.

According to Anthony Giddens, homelessness is one of the worst forms of social exclusion. It excludes an individual from various other social services .In India Dalit, tribal and minorities suffer from multiple forms of exclusion. LGBT community is another community across the world that suffers multiple exclusions. At different periods of history, protest movements arose against caste, gender and religious discrimination. When legislations are enacted to curb the exclusions they are practiced with changed perspective. Social exclusion can be seen in the affluent class as well with exclusive clubs and gated communities.

 

 

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