An English anthropoloist,Tylor's most important contribution lies in his treatment of culture. His Primitive Culture presents his doctrine of survivals the view that non-functional beliefs and customs in modern societies are relics of the cultural past and his theory of animism. Animism implies the attribution by some people of a spiritual existence to animals, plants and even inanimate objects occasionally. This notion forms the basis of his theory of development and origins of primitive religion. For Tylor the principal criterion of cultural growth are development of industrial arts extent of scientific knowledge, type of religion, extent of political and social organization. He originated the method of adhesions based on probability and helped to establish a comparative religion.