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The modern civilized society is characterized by a large number of organizations. Our society in a way is an organizational society. We live in, belong to and work through organizations but satisfy most of our desires and fulfill our aspirations through organizations.In current scenario, the term organization is used to refer to the interdependence of parts in groups. These groups may vary in size and nature from small cliques of workers to hospitals and factories. Today very rarely sociologists use the term social organization in a comprehensive way. Many sociologists prefer to use the term social system to refer to the society as such rather than social organization. Talcott Parsons, G.H Homans, R.K Merton and others use the term social system in place of social organization to refer to society.
The term is used in sociological studies and researches today to stress the importance of arrangement of parts and their interdependence in groups and societies. The concept is of help in understanding the way in which the parts of society are related to each other and how each is related to the whole society, It is now widely recognized that social organization is required for the survival and the effective functioning of groups and societies. Hence its reference is there in almost all-sociological research and all sociological theory.
Organization appears in society simply because many of the things we do could not be done without it and many other things we do can be done much better because of it. There would be no such things as, colleges, university, store an industry or a church without organization. Organization makes it possible the complex activities in which the members of a complex society participate. Thus a football team of eleven members well organized can defeat an unorganized group of eleven men under any circumstances. A small number of men constituting themselves as a government can rule a nation. A small board of trustees can operate the enterprise. All this is possible because of organization.
The term organization is generally used to mean an association or an associational group. It refers to one of the attributes of an association. In specific sense it represents bureaucracy like that of a business corporation, government or industry. Sometimes it is used in a broad sense to mean the social organization itself. The term organization when used liberally may mean any organized group in contrast with an unorganized group.