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The Subaltern perspective stands for understanding the society through conditions of subordination of people belonging to the different caste, class, age, gender, race etc. It seeks to present an alternate image of society through the viewpoint of the masses usually unrepresented. It seeks to restore a balance by highlighting the role of the masses as against the elites in political and social movements .It treats peasants, tribal and other marginalized sections of the society as the makers of their own history .The Gramscian term subaltern means subordinate group.

It emphasizes the centrality of the relationships of domination and subordination in a society in which class division is not developed as industrialized world. The major proponents of subaltern perspective in India are BR Ambedkar, David Hardiman, Ranjit Guha among others. They have tried to incorporate the views of weaker sections in the writings on Indian society.