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Another variety of protest ideology was based on the rejection of the Brahmanical Aryan religion and culture.
The DK movement in Tamil Nadu idealized the Dravidian culture and religion and attacked the Aryan culture and religion.
The self-respect movement started by Ramaswamy Naickar advocated that his followers should have their own priests. The movement drew its support from low castes. Its leaders worked hard to escape the tyranny of the Brahmins and to extol the virtues of the Dravidian culture. This new identity provided the basis for establishing self-determination, respect on the one hand and for protesting against the domination of the upper castes on the other.