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Urbanization is a transformative process in which people migrate from rural to urban areas and change the ways they use land, interact, and earn a living.

The urban populations include not only city dwellers but also suburbanites and even residents of small towns that have been pulled in by urban sprawl.

Urbanization corresponds with a shift from labor-intensive agriculture-based occupations to manufacturing, information, and service occupations all of which depend heavily on fossil fuels, not only to provide the energy to make, distribute, and deliver goods and services, but also to transport employees from home to work.