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Positive Law

Initiated by Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) carried forward byJohn Austin had been modified, and revitalized. Analytical positivism, is the command ofpolitical authority whose force is not dependent on their moral virtues, historical origins, or sociological effects.

Revised Positivism (Pragmatic positivism - treats law as a resultant of social facts and social forces, similar to sociological jurisprudence)is the result of the Austrian jurist Hans Kelsen (1881-1973) and the two dominating figures in the analytic philosophy of law, H.L.A. Hart (1907-92) and Joseph Raz.

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