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Points to Remember

Peculium: An institution in the estate system where a sum of money or some property was given to a slave by his master.

Cartel: A group of industrialists who together monopolize or gain complete control over the market.

Differential mobilization: A process takes place when the changes that caste has and undergoing carries it beyond the traditional ascriptive definition.

Dahrendorf held that the differential distribution of authority leads to class formation and class conflict.

Hiller observed that when a class system becomes closed to vertical mobility, it becomes a caste.

Marx was the first one to introduce the concept of alienation into sociological theory.

Srinivas termed independence among castes as vertical unity.

It was Hutton who pointed out that the exclusivity and range of the caste panchayat led to an arrangement in which the members of the caste ceased to be members of the community as a whole.

Aristotle classified the society into three strata- guardians, auxiliaries and workers.

Max Weber characterized caste as a closed status group.

Davis and Moore stressed that stratification served to ensure effective role allocation and performance.

Senart advocated the religious theory of the origin of caste.

Parsons held that society would rank highly and reward those who perform successfully in terms of society's values.

According to Tawney in estate system inequality is not primarily economic but judicial.

Nesfield gave the concept of occupational theory of caste.

Marx categorized India under the Asiatic Mode of Production.

Pelham stated that the higher the class one belongs the lessen is the pretence because there is less to pretend to.This is chief reason why our manners are better than other persons.

Proudhon stated property is theft.

Durkheim advocated a form of guild socialism.

Utilitarianism is a theoretical outlook associated with the name of J Benthem.