The term gender refers to culturally transmitted differences between men and women, whereas the sex refers to the biological differences between males and females.
Culture largely determines what is considered masculine or feminine. These definitions can change with social change in the culture.
Functionalist suggests that men perform instrumental roles and women perform expressive roles because that division is functional to the society. Conflict theory sees the almost universal inequality between the sexes in societies as an outgrowth of patriarchy the form of social organization in which men dominate or rule over women. Patriarchy assumes that men are superior to women based on sexism or the belief that one sex is inferior and thus deserves inferior treatment.
The major gender -role socialization agents are the family, schools, the media and the language and the observed interactions in the institutions of the culture.
The family socializes gender roles through reinforcement of appropriate behaviors differential opportunities for boys and girls, role modeling of adult gender behavior and explicit verbal instruction.
One reason men hesitate to perform traditional female tasks is that the tasks are often seen as less valuable to society than are traditional male tasks. As a society we are only beginning to appreciate the economic and social value of homemakers, women or men.
More women are entering government from the local to the national level.
In the second stage of gender relations, women and men must join together, contributing their own special qualities to building a better society both in the family and in the business world. Women must seek out friendships with other women and learn to value their own contributions to the world.
Bernard believes that the female world is based on love, cooperation and duty whereas the male world is based on competition and striving. She seeks to sensitize women to the unique contributions the female world view might make to society in order to help it to grow more cooperative and peaceful.
It is a form of social organization in which men dominate or rule over women.
It is a belief that one sex is inferior and thus deserves inferior treatment.