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Applications of Statistics
Statistics and Sociology
Sociology is one of the social sciences aiming to discover the basic structure of human society, to identify the main forces that hold groups together or weaken them and to learn the conditions that transform social life. It highlights and illuminates aspects of social life that otherwise might be only obscurely recognized and understood. The sociologist may be called upon for help with a special problem such as social conflict, urban plight or the war on poverty or crimes. His practical contribution lies in the ability to clarify the underlaying nature of social problems to estimate more exactly their dimensions and to identify aspects that seem most amenable to remedy with the knowledge and skills at hand.
He naturally lands in sociological research which is the purposeful effort to learn more about society than one can in the ordinary course of living. Keeping in view of the problem he sets forth his objectives collects materials or data and uses statistical techniques and the knowledge and theory already established on similar topics to achieve his objectives. So statistical data and statistical methods are quite indispensable for sociological research studies. There is a growing emphasis recently on social survey methods or research methodology in all faculties of arts.
Sociologists seek the help of statistical tools to study cultural change in the society, family pattern,prostitution,crime,marriage system etc.They also study statistically the relation between prostitution and poverty, crime and poverty,drunkness and crime, illiteracy and crime etc.Thus statistics is of immense use in various sociological studies.
Statistics and Government
The functions of a government are more varied and complex. Various depts in the state are required to collect and record statistical data in a systematic manner for an effective administration. Data pertaining to various fields namely population, natural resources, production both agricultural and industrial,finance,trade,exports and imports, prices, labor, transport and communication, health, education,defence ,crimes etc are the most fundamental requirements of the state for its administration. It is only on this basis of such data; the government decides on the priority areas, gives more attention to them through target oriented programmes and studies the impact of the programmes for its future guidelines.
Statistics and Planning
Modern age is an age of planning and statistics are indispensable for planning. According to Tippett planning greater or lesser degree according to the government in power is the order of the day and without statistics, planning is inconceivable. Based only on a correct assessment of various resources both human and material of the country proper planning can be made. A study of data relating to population, agriculture, industry, prices, employment, health, education enables the planners to fix up time-bound targets on the social and economic fronts evaluation of such economic and social programmes at different stages by means of related data gathered continuously and systematically is also done to decide whether the programmes are on towards the goal or targets set.
Statistics and Economics
In the fields of economics it is almost impossible to think of a problem which does not require an extensive use of statistical data. Most of the laws in economics are based on a study of a large number of units and their analysis is enabled by statistical data and the statistical methods. The important economic aspects like production, consumption, exchange and distribution are described, compared and correlated with the aid of statistical tools. By a statistical study of time series on prices, sales, production one can study their trends, fluctuations and the underlaying causes. Thus statistics is indispensable in economic analysis.