Statistical methods are adopted in order to define the methodology of rural study. This method makes it easier for the survey or to make a comparison between two or more data and hence comes to a logical conclusion. Social survey is intended to be the study of the social aspect of the community's activities and composition. Its objectives are to collect quantitative facts. It does not just make a full study of society but also checks social problems inherent in the rural society. It gives the ideas for improvement and development. This is the process that is conducted within a fixed geographical limit and observes problems of social importance. Webster Dictionary has described social survey as a critical inspection often official to provide exact information, often a study of an area with respect to a certain condition or its prevalence as a survey of school. Participant observation is also a method of rural study of sociology. Here the observer participates with the people whom he is observing.In this way both of them come in contact and therefore data extracted is valuable as the observer is himself involved. Social research is a systematic method of data collection by which the old facts are verified, their sequences; relationship between each fact to the other, explanations and the inherent law are examined.
It locates natural laws that stimulate varied phenomena in social life. The research starts with the formulation of probable hypothesis. Then observation and collection of data is organized and classified. Then broad principles are generalized on the basis of particular cases. The case studies are conducted and verification of general laws and examination of their truth is done. Since rural society is a network of social relations the possibility of prejudice and the idea of the observer manifest upon the study. Rural society is a network of number of social relations and these social relations have number of factors. Thus it becomes difficult to expose all the factors involved in this aspect of the study of rural society. There is lack of universality as rural societies differ from each other in respect of their cultures, customs, and environment and at a point they differ from each other in every aspect of life. Therefore the scientific method is not of much use here. In the study of rural society its units of groups and individuals cannot be controlled because it is not possible to locate particular person in a circumstance and control them. Facts and values are found in a mixed form in rural society. Since rural society is divided into innumerable communities makes it difficult to formulate any universal law for rural society.