Technology has contributed to the growth of industries or to the process of industrialization. Industrialization is a term covering in general terms the growth in a society hitherto mainly agrarian of modern industry with all its circumstances and problems, economic and social.
It describes the growth of a society in which a major role is played by manufacturing industry. The industry is characterized by heavy, fixed capital investment in plant and building by the application of science to industrial techniques and by mainly large-scale standardized production.
The industrial revolution of 18th century led to unprecedented growth of industries. Industrialization is associated with the factory system of production. The family has lost its economic importance. The factories have brought down the prices of commodities, improved their quality and maximized their output. The whole process of production is mechanized. Consequently the traditional skills have declined and artisans have lost their work. Huge factories could provide employment opportunities to thousands to people.
In many countries the growth of industries has contributed to the growth of cities. Urbanization denotes a diffusion of the influence of urban centers to a rural hinterland. Urbanization can be described as a process of becoming urban moving to cities changing from agriculture to other pursuits common only to cities and corresponding change of behavior pattern.
Urbanization has become a world phenomenon. An unprecedented growth has taken place not only in the number of great cities but also in their size. As a result of industrialization people have started moving towards the industrial areas in search of employment. Due to this the industrial areas developed into towns and cities.
The scientific and technological inventions have modernized societies in various countries. They have brought about remarkable changes in the whole system of social relationship and installed new ideologies in the place of traditional ones.
Development of transport and communication has led to the national and international trade on a large scale. The road transport, the train service, the ships and air transport have eased the movement of men and material goods. Post and telegraph, radio and television, newspaper and magazines, wireless has developed a great deal. They have helped the people belonging to different corners of the nation or the world to have regular contacts.
The introduction of the factory system of production has turned the agricultural economy into industrial economy. The industrial or the capitalist economy has divided the social organization into two predominant classes- the capitalist class and the working class. These two classes are always at conflict due to mutually opposite interests.
The problem of unemployment is a concomitant feature of the rapid technological advancement. Machines not only provide employment opportunities for men but they also take away the jobs of men through labor saving devices. This results in technological unemployment.
The dangerous effect of technology is evident through the modern mode of warfare. The weaponry has brought fears and anxieties to the mankind. They can easily destroy the entire human race reveal how technology could be misused.
Technology has altered our modes of life. The institutions of family, religion, morality, marriage, state, and property have been altered. Modern technology has radically changed the family organization. Many functions of the family have been taken away by other agencies. Marriage is losing its sanctity. It is treated as a civil contract than a sacred bond. Instances of divorce, desertion and separation are increasing. Technology has elevated the status of women but it has also contributed to the stress and strains in the relations between men and women at home. Inventions and discoveries in science have shaken the foundations of religion.
Modern technology has made the states to perform such functions as education, protection of minorities and other under privileged class and healthcare etc. Transportation and communication inventions are leading to a shift of functions from local government to the central government of the whole state. The modern inventions have also strengthened nationalism.