The age and sex composition of a population affects its social life in many ways. Changes in age composition are due mainly to changes in birthrates and are presently increasing the proportion of aged and reducing the proportion of children in many countries. Migration is affected by the push given to people by unsatisfactory conditions at home by the pull of attractive opportunities elsewhere and by the channels or means through which they are able to migrate.
Sex Composition: The small family norm together with a desire for a male child has further distorted a sex ratio against the girl-child. The sex ratio has steadily declined: From 972 (for every 1000 boys) in 1901 to 927 in 1991. The latest census shows a slight overall improvement in the sex ratio to 933. Unfortunately, this is offset by a worsening of the sex ratio of children up to the age of six.
The sex ratio for children up to the age of six has gone down from 962 girls per 1000 boys in 1981, to 945 in 1991, to 927 in 2001. The sharpest declines in sex ratio for the child population are reported from Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Gujarat, Uttaranchal, Maharashtra and Chandigarh, where abortions of female fetuses are known to be widely practised.
Population Density: Defined as the number of persons per sq km the population density of India in 2001 was 324 per sq km.West Bengal is still the most thickly populated state with a population density of 903 in 2001.Bihar (880) is now the second highest densely populated state pushing Kerala to the third place.
Age Composition: The current age distribution of Indian population is little more than 31.7 per cent are under the age of 15 years (male 173,869,856; female 164,003,915); 63.5per cent are between 15 and 64(male 349,785,804; female 326,289,402), and 4.8 per cent are over the age of 60(male 25,885,725; female 25,235,905). The Indian Planning Commission's Technical Group on Population Projections predicted in the National Population Policy (2000) that India's population would be 1.012 billion in March 2001, going up to 1.179 billion and 1.264 billion in March 2011 and 2016 respectively.
Morality: According to 2001 census Seventy-two out of every 1,000 babies born die before their first birthday. Seven per cent (72/1,000) of newborn infants perish within a year of birth, because of low birth weight, pre-maturity, malnutrition, diarrhea diseases, acute respiratory infections and malnutrition. Compare this to the IMRs in Sri Lanka (18/1,000) and China (41/1,000 Moreover, in India, there are more female deaths (rural or urban areas) in the age group of 0-14 than elsewhere. Although the IMR has decreased from 146 per 1000 births in 1951 to 72 per 1000 births (1997) and the sex differentials are narrowing, there are wide inter-state differences.
Measurements of mortality
" Crude Death Rate " Birth Rate " Infant Mortality Rate
Factors for the low death rate
" Healthcare services " Vaccinations and control of epidemics " Reduction in the occurrence of famines and droughts