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Pareto (1848-1923) gave following concepts:

  • Circulation of elites
  • Logico- experimental method
  • Logical and non logical action
  • Residues and Derivations

    Circulation of Elites

    Pareto believed that society is unequal mentally and physically some people are more intelligent and capable then others. It is these people who become elite in any social group. According to him there are two types of elites- Governing elites and Non governing elites. Governing elites are those individuals who directly or indirectly play major part in ruling the society while the non governing comprise the rest of the society. The elites are intellectually more superior. The society degenerates where elites occupy status due to ascription status and through achievements. The ascriptive elites are taken as lions and who become elite through vitality and imagination are foxes. Hence lions and followed by foxes.Since Lions have element of stability of persistence but however lack in manipulative activities hence are replaced by foxes.

    Logical and Non logical action

    Society is a system in equilibrium. This equilibrium implies that there are certain forces which maintain the form or structure of society. If the outer forces like war try to disturb the system the inner forces push towards restoring the equilibrium. Logical actions are which uses means appropriate to ends and logically links means with ends. These actions are both subjective and objective.Nonlogical are residual and fall outside the periphery of logical actions. According to Pareto nonlogical action are important to study since they explain sentimental actions.

    Residues and Derivatives

    Residues and Derivatives are both manifestation of sentiments which pertain to human nature. This theory helps in jeopardizing the non scientific theories and beliefs regarding human action. E.g. various religions in different societies. However all religions have some common beliefs. These common and constant features are called derivatives while rest is residue.

    Pareto states six classes of residues which are constant throughout the western history.

    1. Instinct combination.
    2. Group persistence
    3. Manifestation of sentiments through actions and outer expressions
    4. Power to impose power over society.
    5. Residues of personal integrity.
    6. Residue of sex.