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Ruth Benedict

Ruth Benedict was influenced by the culture and personality school of American Anthropology. She conducted her first fieldwork in 1920s and was influenced by Psychological theory. She considers that culture is integrated according to a pattern and is organized around a specific line and at the various elements is integrated along it. She propounded on the basis of her study of culture in different societies that the various aspect of life reinforce the existing patterns of culture. Benedict studied the patterns of culture in two important field work conducted in the south western United States among Zuni Indians and the North West coast Kwakitul Indians. She specified two patterns of culture.

Apollonian

Dionysian

Found in Zuni Indian Society. Found in Kwakitul Indians
Simple, harmonious relationship With submissive attitude and Joint community orientation Individualistic orientation, With submissive attitude and Joint community orientation

Important Books:

  • Patterns of Culture
  • Chrysanthemum and the sword