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DNA Technology

The structure of DNA was explained by a model created by the famous Nobel Laureates Watson and Crick. The DNA helix has two strands. Each strand is formed by numerous nucleotides. A nucleotide is formed by the nitrogenous base with a 5 carbon sugar and a phosphate.

Many nucleotides form a string or strand called a polynucleotide which is otherwise known as gene. The various features or characters of an organism and its internal chemistry are decided only by these genes.

It has been found possible to identify and isolate a gene and to transfer a gene from one organism to another to create new combinations. The technology is called recombinant DNA technology.

By modified procedures to use this DNA recombinant technology it is possible to prevent and cure genetic disorders of human beings. Medical genetics concerns with diagnosis and prognosis of various genetic diseases. It is gaining importance because it deals with treatment of such diseases.

Genetic counseling forms an important field of medical genetics. Human chromosome in relation to health and disease are investigated in the field called human cytogenetic.

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