Home >> Basic Concepts >> Terms of Sociology - F

Terms of Sociology

A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M
N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z

Fabian society is one of the earliest socialist organizations of England. The socialism of the Fabians has always been gradualists rather than revolutionary, bureaucratic rather than democratic, technical and research based rather than ethical or emotional; elitist rather than popular. (Duncan Mitchell).

A group which comes into being to establish or regularize the sexual or procreative function. A primary group which is made up of two parents and at least one dependent child all of whom are bound by a feeling of familisms.

Family culture
The traditions customs, group habits, attitudes and understandings which are peculiar to the members of a given family.

Fecundity refers to biological capacity for reproduction as distinct from actual reproduction which is called fertility. Fertility is always less than fecundity in all societies and varies considerably among different societies. The difference between fecundity and fertility is more pronounced among industrial societies as compared to preindustrial societies.

The social, economic and political structure known as feudalism was a characteristic feature of Europe,Japan,China etc at different time. Universal definition of feudalism cannot be given. There are five characteristics common to most feudal societies-
Lord-vassal relationship
Personalized government
A pattern of land holding based on granting of fiefs in return for services primarily military Existence of private armies
Rights of lords over the peasants who are serfs.

The feudal political system was essentially a decentralized one and depended on a hierarchical network of personal ties within the ranks of nobility despite the formal principle of single line of authority stretching upwards to a king.The economic base of feudalism in Europe was characterized by manorial organization of production and a dependent peasantry who provided the surplus that lords needed perform their political functions.

Feudal society
An ideal society which is the make up of closed status categories or estates ;it is made up of a large peasant labor force a small number of privileged land owners, artisans and merchants, warriors and a priest estate. Each status category would be obliged to observe its own laws.

Functionalist analysts have a long history in sociology. Functionalists thought started from Auguste Comte (1798-1857), and Herbert Spencer (1820-1903). It was developed further by Emile Durkeim, Talcott Parsons, refined by R. K. Merton etc. Functionalism views society as a system that is a set of interconnected parts which together form a whole. The basic unit of analysis is society and its various parts are understood primarily in terms of their relationship to the whole. Thus social institutions such as family and religion are analyzed as a part of the social system rather than as isolated units. In a particular, they are understood with reference to the contribution they make to the system as a whole. The basic needs or necessary conditions of existence are called functional prerequisites.

Functional Imperative of Pre-requisites
These concepts refers to basic needs which all systems including social systems have to meet if they are to continue to survive as functioning system. Marion J.Levy and T Parsons are associated with these concepts.

The term was introduced by W.G.Sumner. Folkways are group habits, or in other words commonly accepted ways of behaving in a society.