In the realm of social sciences researches are taking place. Research today has become part of sociology. There are two sides to the sociological enterprise: theory and research. Both are essential and each depends on the other and each hinges on the other. Facts without theory are meaningless. Theories without facts are unproved speculations of little use to anybody because there is no way to tell whether they are correct. According to Pauline V Young social research is a systematic method of exploring analysing and conceptualizing social life in order to extend, correct or verify knowledge whether that knowledge aids in the construction of a theory or in the practice of art.
Social research is systematic and scientific. It is not just guesswork and imaginative work. Reliable evidence can be produced only by using a research methodology. A methodology is a system of rules, principles and procedures that guides scientific investigation. The sociologist is interested in what happens in social world and why it happens. Research methodology provides guidelines for collecting evidence about what takes place and for explaining why it takes place. Sociologists use a variety of research methods used in sociology today- observation, questionnaire, interview and the social survey method.